The idea of having “love languages” is now fairly commonplace – popularized by Dr. Gary Chapman, the basic premise is that we all have different experiences of what makes us feel cared for and loved. Getting a beautiful piece of jewelry for an anniversary might be an extremely emotional experience for one person and feel tacky and meaningless for another; to one person, finding out that your partner has to cancel plans because they’re working late is an unfortunate but minor inconvenience, while to another person it might be devastating. Chapman identified five “languages” he feels encompass the main ways people receive and express affection: quality time, words of affirmation, gift-giving, physical touch, and acts of service.

You may know your own love language, or even if you haven’t gone through a process to determine it, one may stand out to you – it means a lot to you when someone does your laundry, so you may love acts of service, or you want partners to make time to spend with you solo. You may even know your partner’s love language – it’s increasingly normal for people to share this information, which is great. But when you and your partner don’t share a love language, it isn’t always intuitive to figure out how to connect with them most strongly – you might feel like you’re putting a lot of effort into showing affection for your partner, but if it’s not connecting with their love language, they may not be receiving it. Here are some ideas for how to effectively communicate your care for someone according to their love language.

Quality Time

This can feel like a no-brainer – of course, you spend time with them, you’re in a relationship! But the quality modifier in “quality time” matters a lot. You might feel like your weekly movie-and-takeout Friday night is solid quality time, but your partner might feel like you’re on your phone during it, you don’t have a chance to actually talk during it, and you’re both too tired from a long work week to really be present. Try to think about activities that involve: a) your undivided attention, b) you and your partner can both show up as the best version of yourselves, and c) ideally involve an activity that aligns with your partner’s values and interests, or has some link to your relationship or common interests. Some ideas could be:

Setting your alarm 15 minutes earlier than you need to in the mornings so you and your partner can have a cup of coffee in bed together
Suggesting a recipe or craft for you to try together
A structured activity organized around connecting with each other intentionally, like the game Where Should We Begin

Words of Affirmation

Again, words of affirmation may feel obvious – who doesn’t like being given praise and compliments? But there’s a big difference between a meaningful, well-executed compliment and something that feels halfhearted or perfunctory; who hasn’t had their heart sink at hearing a partner say “of course, you look nice, honey” absentmindedly without even looking. For your words of affirmation to really land for your partner, try to be a) specific and concrete, b) self-motivated, and c) recognizing things that matter to them. Compliments don’t feel as good when we have to ask for them, and they should be ways of recognizing things your partner cares about that matter to them personally. This could look like:

Naming effort and intention behind something, not its outcome: “you worked so hard on that presentation and it really shows, you should be really proud of yourself.”
Linking your partner’s decisions or accomplishments to characteristics that you love and admire about them: “You handled that situation with Sharon so well; I’ve always loved how articulate and calm you are under pressure, it’s super impressive.”
Explicitly noticing and celebrating things they do in your relationship that you appreciate – especially those things you want them to continue doing: “You always work so hard to make my day better when I’m bummed out about something.”

Gift-Giving

Gift-giving can be one of the less understood love languages, and some can assume it means being greedy or materialistic. To understand it a little better, think about what gift-giving involves: thinking about your partner when you aren’t physically with them, planning ahead for your partner’s sake even when it doesn’t immediately benefit you, listening to and remembering your partner’s likes and dislikes, and taking multiple logistical steps like managing finances, ordering and shipping, maybe even hiding or keeping a gift a secret for your partner’s sake.